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Modeling bromide effects on the speciation of trihalomethanes formation in chlorinated drinking water

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Mok K.M., Wong H. and Fan X.J.
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Speciation behavior of trihalomethanes formation in chlorinated waters due to the effects
of bromide is mathematically modeled by a three-tier scheme. Equations for the mole
fractions of the mono-, di-, and trihalo-intermediates at each tier level in terms of the initial
bromide to chlorine molar ratio are derived and verified by comparison with results of
other theoretical studies based on an assumption of constant bromination to chlorination
reaction reactivity ratio. It is identified that the usage of applied chlorine concentration or
available chlorine concentration for calculation of the relative initial bromide to chlorine
concentration would yield different reactivity ratio and should be used consistently. The
model equations are also tested by laboratory experiments done with source water at a
local plant. It is found that equations with an overall bromination to chlorination rate
constant ratio of 18.66 can capture the THM speciation behavior of all four tested
incubation periods well.

Trihalomethanes; Speciation; Bromide effects; Kinetic model; Drinking water