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Vulnerability of the Indus River Delta of the North Arabian Sea, Pakistan

Paper Topic: 
Hydrology and water resources

Pages :
599 - 610

Corresponing Author: 
Noor Ahmed Kalhoro
Kalhoro N.A., He Z., Xu D., Faiz M., Yafei L.V., Sohoo N. and Bhutto A.H.
Paper ID: 
Paper Status: 
Date Paper Accepted: 
Paper online: 

Seawater intrusion has been a serious problem in the Indus River Estuary (IRE) for decades. The literature reviews, hydrological and meteorological observations were analyzed to examine and discuss the causes and consequences of seawater intrusion in the IRE. Both sea water intrusion and coastal erosion are having a devastating environmental and social impact and the whole ecosystem of the Indus Delta is facing serious threat. The Indus deltaic region is not only threatened by continuing activities upstream but also by the neighboring sea in the south, due to the impacts of local weather conditions. Observational results suggest that seawater intrusion reaches 84 km upstream in the IRE during the dry season. Extensive field investigations and a high resolution coastal ocean model are urgently needed for future study.


Indus Delta, sea water intrusion, coastal erosion, degradation, future directions