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Spatial and temporal variations of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics in Indus River Estuary,Pakistan

Paper Topic: 
Ecosystems and Natural Resources Management

Pages :
572 - 580

Corresponing Author: 
Noor Ahmed Kalhoro
Noor Ahmed Kalhoro Zhiguo He Li Li Dongfeng Xu Wang Jun Anwar Zeb Nooruddin Khaskheli
Paper ID: 
Paper Status: 
Date Paper Accepted: 
Paper online: 
Visual abstract: 

Field investigations were conducted to study the seasonal variation of hydrodynamics and sediment transport in Indus River Estuary (IRE), Pakistan. The data of water levels, currents, salinity, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were collected hourly covering both wet and dry seasons. Tidal amplitudes were higher near the mouth than those at the middle and upper estuary. The ebb phase lasted longer than that of the flood during the wet season. The asymmetric tidal pattern with higher ebb velocity was observed during the wet season. A slight difference in current velocity was found during the dry season. The flood currents were higher at middle estuary than those in wet season. During the wet season, salinity variation within a tidal cycle slightly increased from the upper estuary to the mouth. Salinity was substantially higher during the dry season than the wet season at all three stations, with the absence of the flood-ebb variation, showing a strong saltwater intrusion. The SSC data revealed that the sediments were mainly brought into the estuary by freshwater discharge during the wet season. Sediment re-suspension process persists during the dry season, due to the tidal currents. A stronger saltwater intrusion occurred in the dry season due to weak river discharge. An estuarine turbidity maximum zone was formed near station-2 due to the combined effects of tides, river discharge and saltwater intrusion. Overall, field observations have shown a significant spatial and temporal variation in flood/ebb and wet/dry seasons for hydrodynamics and sediment transport in IRE.

seasonality, fluvial discharge, hydrodynamics, SSC, saltwater intrusion, Indus River Estuary