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New disinfection by-product issues: emerging DBPs and alternative routes of exposure

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Pages :
43 - 60

Richardson S.
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This paper discusses current issues with drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs),
which include emerging (unregulated) DBPs that can be formed at greater levels with
alternative disinfectants (as compared to chlorine) and routes of human exposure (which
include inhalation and dermal exposure studies, in addition to ingestion). Health effects
driving DBP research include the recently observed reproductive/developmental effects
(including spontaneous abortion) observed in epidemiologic studies, as well as the
discrepancy between the types of cancer observed in animal studies for regulated DBPs
(mostly liver cancer) and the types of cancer observed in human epidemiologic studies
(mostly bladder cancer). Emerging DBPs discussed in this paper include iodo-acids,
bromonitromethanes, iodo-trihalomethanes (THMs), brominated forms of MX, bromoamides,
a bromopyrrole, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and other nitrosamines. Recent toxicity
studies have revealed that several of these DBPs are more genotoxic (in isolated cells) than
many of the DBPs currently regulated, and new occurrence data have revealed that many of
these DBPs can, in some cases, be present at levels comparable to regulated DBPs. Of the
alternative disinfectants, chloramination appears to increase the formation of iodo-acids,
iodo-THMs, and NDMA and other nitrosamines, relative to chlorine. Preozonation appears to
increase the formation of halonitromethanes.

Disinfection by-products, DBPs, drinking water, emerging, exposure