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Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil, Paddy Straw and SEM analysis of the soil for the impact of wastewater irrigation in Girudhumal Sub basin of Tamil Nadu, India

Paper Topic: 
Multidisciplinary research in environmental science

Pages :
309 - 318

Corresponing Author: 
Dhanasekarapandian M, Chandran S, Kumar V, Surendran, U
Paper ID: 
Paper Status: 
Date Paper Accepted: 
Paper online: 

The objective of the study is to determine accumulation and translocation of heavy metals from soil to paddy straw irrigated with urban sewage wastewater in peri-urban region of Girudhumal subbasin area in Madurai. The soil samples were collected in seven locations irrigated with treated and untreated wastewater and analyzed for physical properties like pH, EC, bulk density, soil type, major (N,P,K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) and heavy metals Ni, Cd, Pb. SEM analysis showed that soil structure is significantly influenced by wastewater irrigation. It confirms that the wastewater irrigation disturbs soil structure and affecting the plant growth in long run.  Pb content was higher than the prescribed safe limits in S5 and S6 location, similarly, Ni also was higher than the safe limit in all the locations. Pollution Load Index values are in the range of 0.08-0.56 for all sites, and it indicated that chance of heavy metal contamination is less. The EF values show moderate enrichment to Ni and Zn, Significant enrichment for Cd and Cu, Extremely high for Pb and deficiency for Mn. All these results confirmed that there is no immediate risk of heavy metal pollution, however with respect to Pb and Ni the plant tissues are showing higher values. The transfer factor for heavy metals from soil to paddy straw is less than 0.5 for Cd and for others is more than 0.5 indicated greater chances for heavy metal contamination.

Heavy metals, Paddy Straw, Pollution Load Index, Enrichment Factor, Translocation Factor, SEM