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Occurrence and fate of 17β-estradiol in water resources and wastewater in Ahvaz, Iran

Paper Topic: 
Water Quality

Pages :
855 - 866

Corresponing Author: 
Afshin Takdastan
Hassani G., Babaei A., Takdastan A., Shirmardi M., Yousefian F. and Mohammadi M.J.
Paper ID: 
Paper Status: 
Date Paper Accepted: 
Paper online: 

Estradiol is known as the indicator of the presence of hormones as Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) in water and wastewater. The entrance of these compounds into water resources through daily liquid wastes of societies as well as pharmaceutical industries, ranching, and pathology laboratories leads to an increase in their concentrations in these resources. Consequently, due to the metabolic properties of these substances they can cause adverse effects on consumers and aquatics. The main purpose of this research is to determine the occurrence and the fate of estradiol as indicator of endocrine-disrupting compounds in drinking water, surface water, and wastewater in Ahvaz, Iran. 17β-estradiol was detected in 37.5% of samples obtained from drinking water and 68.75% of samples from the Karun River. In the urban drinking water and Karun River, the mean concentrations of 17β-estradiol were 2.96 and 13.66
ng l-1, respectively.

In the domestic and industrial wastewater, the concentrations of 17β-estradiol were higher than that detected in the drinking and surface waters. The mean concentrations of this hormone in these wastewaters were 57.46 and 70.6 ng l-1, respectively. The highest amount of 17β-estradiol was measured in the hospital wastewater. The fate of 17β-estradiol in the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant, in which a septic tank, an anaerobic pond, and an aerobic tank were used for wastewater treatment, was higher than 75%. The highest level of removal in the aerobic stage was also obtained by breaking estradiol down to other metabolites.

estradiol, slaughterhouse wastewater, Ahvaz, Karun River, domestic wastewater