Emerging pollutants are increasingly detected in aqueous environmental samples, with
pharmaceuticals and related compounds consisting a large category with many diverse groups,
including parent compounds and their metabolites/transformation products. Significant research is
performed on this subject worldwide, in order to obtain information regarding their occurrence, fate
and health effects. In this effort, development and optimization of highly sensitive and accurate
analytical methods for their determination in environmental samples is a necessity, but also a
challenge. Advanced analytical methods for emerging pollutants include liquid chromatography (LC)
or gas chromatography (GC) followed by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection. These
methods, combined with a variety of sample preparation procedures, provide the ability to analyze
emerging pollutants in the environment in trace levels, and to identify and quantify their
oxidation/degradation products. However, there are still many analytical aspects that need
improvement and optimization for increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the methods, in order to
be able to fill the gaps of knowledge on the studied compounds.
Groundwater in the area of eastern Croatia contains increased concentrations of organic
compounds, primarily natural organic matter (NOM). Organic compounds in water become a
problem in drinking water treatment, especially during water disinfection with chlorine, when harmful
disinfection by-products like trihalomethanes appear. Therefore, the removal of disinfection byproducts
(DBP) precursors gains high importance.
This paper deals with the efficiency of NOM removal from groundwater by the Fenton’s process and
its influence on trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). In this research performance of Fenton
process at conditions close to conditions of natural groundwater was investigated. pH value was not
decreased under 4.5 and attempt was done to perform Fenton’s process at natural iron
concentration in groundwater of town Osijek area. Once optimized, process achieved about 50 %
removal of TOC (2.5 mM H2O2; 0.1 mM Fe2+; pH 4.5) and decrease of THMFP (A254/A203) for about
70 % (5 mM H2O2; 0.1 mM Fe2+; pH 4.5). Under adequate conditions Fenton process could be
successfully used for the removal of organic contaminants from groundwater.
In the present study, the photocatalytic treatment of two synthetic textile dyehouse effluents was
investigated. The first synthetic effluent (SE1) is a Remazol Black B aqueous solution, while the
second one (SE2) is an aqueous mixture of sixteen dyes and auxiliary chemicals that are usually
employed in the textile industry. Various illumination sources were studied, while emphasis was
given on the use of simulated and natural solar light.
Results indicated that the use of solar irradiation can constitute an advantageous treatment strategy,
due to its energy efficient and environmentally friendly operation, for textile dyehouse effluents.
Specifically, it was observed that total decolorization and mineralization of SE1 occurred after about
120 min and 300 min, respectively, in the presence of at least 2 g L-1 TiO2, under natural sunlight.
On the other hand, total decolorization of SE2 was achieved only after 300 min of photocatalytic
treatment, while COD removal practically remained unchanged, at about 20%, regardless the
applied operating parameters, due to the presence of other organic and inorganic substances.
Furthermore, it was found that process efficiency was significantly affected by the catalyst loading.
The potential of rainbow fungus (Coriolus versicolor) for bioremediation of bagasse soda pulp
bleaching effluent containing chlorinated organic compounds was investigated without co-substrate
addition. Initially, the effect of each of the operating variable including time, temperature, pH, and
biomass on color reduction was investigated. The highest color reduction (percentage of the original
value) was observed applying a treatment time of 6 days (58%), a pH of 3 (48%), a biomass dose of
9 g L-1 (59%), and a temperature of 35°C (48%). Then, the combined effect of parameters was
studied to reach the best combinations of parameters leading to the highest color reduction. The
highest performance of rainbow fungus on color reduction (66%) was observed when applying the
combination of variables including temperature, treatment time, biomass dose, and pH combination
of 35°C, 6 days, 9 g L-1, and 3, respectively. At this condition, COD and BOD of effluent were
decreased by 45% and 53%, respectively. It was also found that Coriolus versicolor can efficiently
reduced various toxic compounds; chlorophenols, chloroguaiacols, and chlorocatechols present in
the effluent to the levels less than their lethal concentration (96LC50) even without addition of cosubstrate.
In general, rainbow fungus can efficiently modify the undesirable physico-chemical
characteristics of bagasse soda pulp bleaching effluent.
This study investigates the partition of heavy metals in slag from the rotary kiln (SL), second
combustion chamber ashes (SCCA), filter cake (FC) from a bag filter and flue gas (FG) emissions
(both in particulate and gas phases) of the Istanbul medical waste incinerator (ISTAC). Eleven
targeted heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl) in four matrices were
analysed for eight different date samples in 2008. The results obtained were evaluated according to
the metal species, furnace temperatures and other factors that affect the formation and accumulation
of the metals in the incineration cycle. According to the results, combustion temperatures, reactor
configuration and waste contents are the dominant parameters determining the volatility and
partitioning of metals in the combustion systems. The biggest waste portions were obtained for the
SL and the dominant metal species for the SL and SCCA were Cu (505,9±99,3 and 697,4±577,7 mg
per kg dry mass for SL and SCCA respectively) and Mn (238,0±154,6 and 199,9±180,4 mg per kg
dry mass for SL and SCCA respectively) . In the FC, the dominant species was Cu (166,8±128,1 mg
per kg dry mass) and this was followed by Mn, Ni and Hg. It is thought that cement and activated
lignite, which were added to the process as adsorbent materials, were affecting the contents of the
FC. Metals were divided into particulate and gas phases and maximum concentrations were
observed for Ni, Mn and Cr in a particulate phase of FG. Emission factors were considered and
mass balance calculations for metals were also conducted in the study.
In Turkey, control studies related to the wastes from ships continue, and the first waste acceptance
facility (WAF) from ships was founded in Istanbul: Haydarpaşa WAF. Haydarpaşa WAF has been
accepting waste since September 2005 based on the International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78). The number of transit ships and their disposed wastes have
been continuously recorded in a database since September 2005. The main goal of this study is to
forecast the amount of different waste collected from transit ships for next two years based on the
data recorded between September 2005 and January 2010 using ARMA forecasting model.
According to result obtained with the model, the current data remain between the upper and the
lower limit values of forecasting data.
Marine sediment contamination was evaluated in a set of sediment specimens collected from Izmir
Bay (Turkey) and from Mytilene Harbor (Greece) in the Aegean Sea. Eight sediment specimens from
Izmir (#IZ to #IZ8) and seven sediment specimens from Mytilene (#MYT1 to #MYT7) were analyzed
for their content in different classes of contaminants, i.e. inorganics, organic carbon (OC), and seven
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Significantly higher levels of inorganic contaminants were
detected in Izmir vs. Mytilene sediment, and the highest inorganic contamination was detected in the
innermost sampling sites in Izmir Bay, namely sites #IZ1 to #IZ4. This was the case for Al, As, Cr,
Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Pb, Ti and Zn. Granulometric analysis, OC and individual PAH congeners failed to
show any significant differences between total Mytilene and total Izmir Bay sediment samples.
Nevertheless, the sum of PAHs in sites #IZ2 to #IZ4 displayed significantly higher levels both vs. the
other Izmir sites and vs. all Mytilene sediment samples. The overall results point to higher pollution
status in Izmir Bay, especially in the innermost sampling sites, compared to Mytilene Harbor,
detected as inorganic contamination and as PAH contamination in some Izmir sampling sites.
Phytoremediation is an alternative to traditional chemical and ways of treating polluted soils. The
current study was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with nickel
(Ni) by Lepidium sativum. Soil samples from 0 to 10 cm depth were collected. Lepidium sativum was
transplanted in pots containing 5 kg of the collected soils. Central composite design and response
surface methodology were employed in order to illustrate the nature of the response surface in the
experimental design and explain the optimal conditions of the independent variables. Different
concentrations for Ni (1 to 20 mg kg-1) and times for collecting samples (10 to 40 days) were used.
The results showed the amount of Ni removed was ranged from 8.62 mg kg-1 (Ni concentration of 20
mg kg-1 and time for taking samples of 10 days) to 7.066 mg kg-1 (Ni concentration of 10.50 mg kg-1
and time for taking samples of 40days). Additionally, the findings explained that the Lepidium
sativum is an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of Ni polluted soils. Optimum
conditions for nickel concentration and time for taking samples were 19.66 mg kg-1 and 39.28 days,
respectively. For the optimum condition, the amount of Ni removed was 10.8095 mg kg-1.
To inform the further development of water pricing in Shiyang River basin, a typical arid region in
northwest China with agriculture as the major consumer of water, this research conducted a
contingent valuation study on farmer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for irrigation water. The results show
that the current irrigation water price is to low to achieve sustainable use of water. The main reason of
low price is not the farmer’s inability to pay, but their unwillingness to pay. Furthermore, a vicious
cycle of less willingness to pay and poor services exist in irrigation water management. The probable
solutions include the increase of public investment in water infrastructure and determine appropriate
price between surface water and groundwater. More important, enhance the communication and
cooperation between water use and water agency, the combination of price mechanism and other
instruments, such as positive incentives and the establishment of an independent water user
organization (WUO), are useful.
Nowadays, it is a common ascertainment that stormwater runoff in the urban and interurban road
network consist non-point source pollution which contributes to the degrading of the quality of water
of ground and surface water bodies. Taking into account the fact that water pollution has impacts to
people and also to flora and fauna, the need to take measures in order to confront this
environmental problem becomes inevitable. The adverse impacts of the stormwater runoff can be
minimized with structural and non-structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) or with a
combination of them.
Within the content of the present paper the following are included: a) the investigation and
presentation of the receiving waters pollution issues from the highway road network stormwater
runoff together with the European transport policy concerning the development of an integrated
highway road network, b) the examination of the respective pollutant generation and characteristics,
c) the presentation of their impacts, d) the examination of the measures (structural and nonstructural
BMPs), e) the presentation of the “first flush” phenomenon, f) The presentation of the
existing legislation in the EU with emphasis in the E.U. Directive 2000/60/EC as well as the
presentation of the relevant existing environmental legislation in Greece, including also the
presentation of the way the Highway Guidelines actually deal with the specific problem.