The present attempt has a two prong-emphasis. On the one hand it demarcates the physical, structural,
social and economic parameters and the eliciting environmental problems in Thriassion Plain, the main
industrial area of metropolitan Athens, Greece. On the other hand it attempts to delineate a framework
of total unit management in terms of actions that may make possible the solution of long term pollution
problems focusing on the whole spectrum of potential policy alternatives. Such an approach could contribute
in presenting some options, for water resources management in particular and in general for natural
resources management efforts, that may outline an environmental management framework necessary
for a continuous, comprehensive and future oriented development of the area.
The Peninsula of Sithonia is one of many typical regions in Greece in which overexploitation of local
aquifers has led to several serious problems related to quantity and quality degradation of groundwater
reserves. In this paper, a management plan is presented that aims at the utilization of the so far
unexploited surface water resources of the area in order to restore the degraded aquifers and to supplement
the groundwater supplies, mostly for domestic use. To this end the total municipal water
demand and the potential of surface waters are first estimated at both the local and regional levels.
Next, four alternative management schemes are examined, each one consisting of a different number
of reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation of these water supply alternatives, that concludes the paper, is
based on both operational and economic factors in order to facilitate a future multi-criterion decisionmaking
The malaria situation in Bulgaria during the past decade of the century was analysed and the evaluation
of the risk of re-emerging of the diseases and factors determining it in the phase of maintanence
of malaria eradication was carried out. The epidemiological analysis of malaria cases notified during
the period 1991-2000 in Bulgaria is presented. Of a total of 382 malaria episodes registered, 363
(95.03%), were imported into Bulgaria from endemic countries, 1 (0.26%) occurred after haemotransfusion
and 18 (4.71%) were indigenous introduced ones. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 68.59%
of all imported cases, P.vivax, for 23.82%, P.ovale, for 2.36%, P.malariae, for 1.85%. In 1.83% more
than one species was detected, and in 6 cases, the species was not identified. The import of malaria
came mainly from Africa-299 (82.37%) cases, followed by Asia-63 (17.36%) and Oceania-1 (0.27%).
Four cases with falciparum malaria resulted in death. A great number of imported cases-231 (63.81%)
was diagnosed during the potential malaria season in Bulgaria (April-October). The analysis of present
entomological situation showed a high density of Anopheles population. As an indication for existence
of potential risk of spread of indigenous malaria, especially in cases of delayed diagnosis and treatment,
18 indigenous cases of vivax malaria were recorded in 1995-1996 in the region of the town of Sandanski,
for the first time after malaria eradication in 1965. The cases were classified as introduced ones. The
analysis of the essential malaria import in Bulgaria, climatic conditions and presence of Anopheline
species revealed a fairly high level of malariogenic potential. The stratification of the country was carried
out in accordance with the degree of hazard of malaria spreading, and the territory was divided
into three categories of regions: with high-, medium- and low-risk. The present situation, that probably
will be valid for the future, too, requires a scientific based prognosis and improvement of a system of
surveillance activities aiming at prevention of indigenous endemic and epidemic spreading of malaria
in the country, as well as elaboration of adequate activities of the health network in case of reappearance
of autochthonous cases.
Air pollution is changing the ecosystems, especially in Europe. Tropospheric ozone may adversely
affect tree growth, with critical levels for ozone being exceeded in many parts of Europe, especially in
the Czech Republic. This research reports the information on exceedances of ozone threshold values
for the period 1994 to 2000 and gives an evaluation of the observed exceedances of the thresholds during
the vegetation period (April-September) and from May to July at the Bílý Køí station. The threshold
for warning of the public (240 ìg m-3 as hourly average concentration) was not exceeded at the Bílý
Køí station for the studied period. The threshold value for information to the population (180 ìg m-3
as hourly average concentration) was exceeded in 1994 (July and August), 1995 (May and July), 1998
(August) and 2000 (June). The threshold value set for the protection of human health population (120
ìg m-3 as eight-hourly average concentration) was exceeded for all period at the Bílý Køí station.
Electricity generation in solid fuel fired power stations is currently the main source of flying particulates
and greenhouse gases emissions. Environmental pollution is expected to deteriorate dramatically
in the coming century unless pollution abatement technologies for solid fuels energy conversion will be
applied. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system, currently under industrial testing,
provides for high solid fuel energy conversion efficiency (e.g. ~ 45 %) and favors the application of
proven technologies for gas purification (e.g. H2S oxidation to elemental sulfur, CO2 separation and
disposal as a stable carbonate solid). Additionally, gasification combined with fuel cell technology
(CGFC) may provide in the long run, for energy conversion efficiency well over 50%. This article
reports also the results of pilot plant lignite gasification tests for the production of a medium heating
value synthesis gas using a novel indirect heat (allothermal) gasification process (ALLOGAS). The latter
process employs an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier and is considered as the most appropriate to
gasify moist lignite with the minimum pretreatment.
In order to study the erodibility characteristics of some calcareous soils from Central Greece, the instability
of aggregates of 2.0-4.7 mm in water was studied. Soil loss experiments were also conducted in
the laboratory using a rain simulator where soil loss was measured and the soils attitude was studied
under the conditions of simulated rainfall. It was found that the instability of aggregates is negatively
correlated with cation exchange capacity and the total specific surface of soils. Also the calcium carbonate
content affects positively the aggregates instability. The process which seems to control dominantly
the time that runoff occurs and the runoff and soil loss quantity, is the creation of surface seals
with raindrop impact due to large calcium carbonate quantities that are met in the clay fraction.
Natural phosphate raw materials contain up to 3.5% of fluorine. In reprocessing natural phosphate raw
material 30 - 100 % of fluorine emits into the environment as toxic compounds. The acid is used for
decomposing the carbon dioxides that are contained in raw materials. The way and technology of
obtaining the phosphate fertilizer has been offered. This technology provides for using the carbonic
acid instead of strong acids. Thus, it is possible to exclude formation of water - soluble fluorine toxic
compounds and use of the acid for decomposing carbon dioxide.
An experimental study has been carried out in an attempt to verify the efficiency of GAC (granular
activated carbon) in removing THMs (trihalomethanes), and in particular CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2
and CHBr3 from drinking water.
The experiments have been conducted at a pilot scale filtering plant that was set up for the purpose, at
the Athens Water Authority, at Galatsi.
This paper reports on the experimental procedure, the sampling technique, the analytical method used,
the overall efficiency of the approach and finally also draws some first conclusions as to the economic
justification of the method, in order to provide some insight on the additional costs of a possible fullscale
use of the method.
A prototype Spatial Decision Support System for the evaluation of water demand and supply management
schemes is presented. The water basin is topologically mapped to a network of spatial objects representing
the physical entities and their connections. Several GIS functions, which include data
input/update, network derivation from the basin map and network building/modification are incorporated.
The tool integrates suitable models for demand site requirements calculation and water allocation.
Alternative scenarios can be constructed, trends and interactions of the complex water system can
be analysed, strategies to solve water allocation conflicts can be evaluated and necessary infrastructure
interventions can be planned in advance in order to meet water needs. The tool is demonstrated
through a case study, involving the current situation and future policies for a typical Greek island.
An environmental database has been created, recording water bodies at a national level and assembling
relevant data collected by various public services and institutions in charge of water resources
management and research in Greece. Data consists of physico-chemical parameters, geomorphological
descriptions, inventories of fauna and flora species, environmental pressures, vulnerability evaluation
and other information useful for the assessment of current and future ecological status. Data
gathering has proven to be a challenging task, due to the large number and the generally small size of
the surface freshwater bodies as well as the numerous competent services and institutions and the
multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities that therefore result. The latter is also partly the
cause of lack of continuity of data, gaps or sometimes questionable reliability. Performing a global
data overview, we note that (a) ecological status can be characterized as good for the majority of the
sites, especially for small mountain streams, and (b) the general trend in most cases is degradation of
current conditions, related either to anthropogenic pressures or to human activity combined with
natural factors. This database, in a more completed and enriched form, could assist in the implementation
of 2000/60/EC Directive in Greece and the establishment of reference conditions of surface