Trends in pan evaporation (Epan) and temperature were identified through the Mann-Kendall test over Jaisalmer to probe the existence of evaporation paradox in arid environments of Thar Desert, northwest India. We also analyzed trends in rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration in the context of climate change. Decreasing trends in Epan were witnessed over Jaisalmer in the months of January, June, October and November in the range of -2.04 to -4.1 mm/year. Significant rainfall decreases were witnessed in the three crucial months of monsoon season, i.e., July, August and September, in range of -0.23 to -1.25 mm/year. Increasing trends in mean temperature were witnessed corresponding to annual and monthly (January, April, September, October and November) time scales in the range of 0.03 to 0.07 °C/year. The simultaneous Epan decrease and temperature rise at Jaisalmer confirmed the existence of evaporation paradox in the months of winter and post-monsoon seasons, which may be due to decreases in wind speed and bright sunshine hours. The increase in temperature along with decreases in Epan, rainfall, sunshine duration, and wind speed over Jaisalmer may have far reaching consequences for the fragile ecosystem of the Thar Desert.
Rainfall indices and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were obtained for Rajasthan State characterized as the most sensitive and vulnerable state in India. Daily rainfall data of 35 years (1971-2005) for 31 well-spread stations were used to generate critical area maps. From the analysis of rainfall indices, it is observed that few stations situated in east and south-eastern side in the state have shown high negative change for annual and monthly rainfall but not such negative change is observed in the case of average number of wet days for the same stations. Similarly from SPI drought analysis both short term and long term, higher tendency of mild droughts is observed than moderate and severe droughts with a noticeable increase in occurrence of severe droughts on longer time scales. The study describes importance of SPI and rainfall indices in understanding the climate change impacts and droughts to provide better assessment and management aspects for the society.
One of major limitations in getting unbiased and balanced approach towards current climate change problem is inadequate participation of scientists from developing countries in IPCC assessment process. Current shortcomings in involving an adequate number of scientists from developing countries and to propose approaches to address this issue have been addressed in this paper. Implications of the involvement to climate change adaptation and mitigation research have been discussed at length. Scientific output of scientists is an important indicator of their career growth and also significant motivator for enhancing participation in IPCC assessment process. Impact of involvement of scientists in IPCC in terms of their scientific output has been assessed. We have made a statistical analysis of the origin of experts in the past assessment reports to reflect the participation. Scientific output in the form of number of peer reviewed papers published has been obtained and statistical t-test carried out for the significant change. The paper describes the results from these analyses and proposes appropriate recommendations for participation and capacity building.
Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on water resources at the local, regional and global scales. In this study, the impact of climate change on the hydro-climatology of the Luni region, India, is investigated by comparing statistics of current and projected future fluxes resulting from three representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). The use of different scenarios allows for the estimation of uncertainty of future impacts. The projections are based on the CORDEX-South Asia framework and are bias-corrected using the DBS method before being entered into the HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment) hydrological model to generate predictions of runoff, evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficit, and applied irrigation water to soil. Overall, the high uncertainty in the climate projections is propagated in the impact model, and as a result the spatiotemporal distribution of change is subject to the climate change scenario. In general, for all scenarios, results show a -20 to +20% change in the long-term average precipitation and evapotranspiration, whereas more pronounced impacts are expected for runoff (-40 to +40% change). Climate change can also affect other hydro-climatic components, however, at a lower impact. Finally, the flow dynamics in the Luni River are substantially affected in terms of shape and magnitude.
natural resources, is already experiencing the effects of climate change. The region’s climate is projected to become harsher, with increased average temperatures, intensity of rainfall events, and increased variability in space & time of monsoon rains being consistently projected for the region. Without action in the form of adaptation of social, human, economic, and natural resource management systems, these weather changes are predicted to result in decreasing surface and ground water availability, flash floods, degradation of soil resources, decrease in crop yields, greater vulnerability to crop pest outbreaks, and declines in forest and pastureland ecosystem goods and services, thus rendering agricultural and herding communities extremely vulnerable to weather related losses of life, livelihood, and food security.
In Rajasthan, government is focussing for sustainable development and climate change adaptation by finding and administering alternative methods to deal with issues of poverty and environmental degradation in context of linkage between livelihood and the immediate environment of the people. The livelihoods of the rural poor are directly dependent on environmental resources like land, water, forests — and are vulnerable to weather and climate variability. Climate change affects every aspect of society, environment and economy requiring adjustments in behaviour, livelihoods, infrastructure, laws, policies and institutions in response to experienced based expected climatic events. However, it was found that local coping strategies and traditional knowledge need to be used in synergy with government and local interventions. Solutions must be integrated to address the interrelationships between water, agriculture, forests and pastures, livestock. Finally, there is great potential for existing policies and schemes to be employed synergistically towards building true adaptive capacity for the rural communities. However, adapting to climate change will entail adjustments and implementation at every level – from community to national and international.
The technology transfer for rural livelihood development had greater impact to protect microclimatic conditions which further affects the microflora and microbial activities to larger extent in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). The technological interventions were made by the Himalayan Research Group organization which helped in economic upliftment of rural poor, women empowerment and in environment protection in hill region. The major activities are Passive Solar Retrofitting (namely, Thermosyphoning Air heat Panel (TAP), Trombe Wall (TW), and Sun Spaces (SS)) fodder development, vermicompost biotechnology, button mushroom cultivation and protected cultivation for climate change mitigation and adaptations. The solar retrofits reduced estimated 4.97 tones carbon emission per household during six winter months which helped in reducing the fuel wood consumption. Improved varieties of different fodder spp. were introduced for year round green fodder availability and reduce soil erosion and reduction in tree lopping. Fodder choppers and silage preparation was popularized to contain the fodder wastage. Vermicompost biotechnology was popularized among farmers to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers for improving the quality of soil. The button mushroom cultivation was used for conversion of agriculture residue into compost making by reducing crop residue burning which increases carbon emission. Protected cultivation in local made polyhouse was popularized to generate maximum returns from small piece of land through cut flower and vegetable cultivation and by raising plant nurseries.
In Kota, the third largest city of Rajasthan, poverty levels are high in many areas and there is a great need to assess the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of different societal groups and sectors to the impacts of climatic variability and change, and to formulate sustainable planning strategies. The city is a large rapidly growing centre (but not a megacity), facing a varied and challenging water situation and anticipated harmful effects of climate change. The methodological approach involves participatory workshops with key stakeholders in urban administration to identify vulnerabilities, and discuss concrete strategies for increasing the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable areas and sectors. The paper focuses on water resource planning (storm, potable, and wastewater), since it is already a challenging societal issue and one which will become even more critical in the future with climate change. We aim to contribute to improved urban water management for sustainable climate change adaptation in developing countries through an improved methodology of vulnerability assessments, capacity building and social learning, and a deeper empirical understanding of an urban context in Central India.
In the present work the physically based distributed rainfall–runoff modeling system, MIKE SHE, is used to simulate the surface runoff at a semi-mountainous impermeable area of Tavronitis River basin in Crete-Greece. The objective of this surface flow model is to develop an appropriate irrigation plan for olive trees. For the model calibration, a simulation time of one year (01/09/2000 - 31/08/2001) was considered, while for the model verification a two-year period (01/09/2001 - 31/08/2003). During these periods river flow measurements were obtained at two specified locations. These measurements were employed as targets for calibration and verification of the surface flow model. After the successful calibration and validation processes, the 2D maps of the overland flow were produced. Using these maps, the locations of significant surface water accumulation in the study region and for a specific time period were identified. Next, these locations were proposed for the construction of potential small hydraulic structures (dam or/and reservoir), for covering the irrigation needs of olive trees in the study area.
The effects of various socioeconomic characteristics on Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) values for service attributes of Solid Waste Management (SWM) were evaluated in this study. The Stated Choice (SC) data collected from respondents in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area, India were analyzed using Random Parameter Logit (RPL) models. Education and household income were found to have statistically significant decomposition effects on mean estimates of several SWM attributes. High income and/or high education were well-correlated to higher WTP values for most of the service attributes. The results show that due consideration to socioeconomic characteristics is necessary while formulating measures for improvement of SWM service in an urban area. This work also demonstrates potential application of RPL models for investigating the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on WTP values, and successful application of constrained triangular distribution in RPL models.
Designed experiments are used to systematically examine the relationship between response variable and a set of experimental factors. In this study, 23 factorial design with center points was used to verify the selected experimental factors influence the removal efficiency and linearity assumption is not valid. Optimization experiments were then done to determine the best settings of the experimental factors and define the nature of curvature. Central Composite Design was used to fit a second-degree model since it was possible to build the previous 23 factorial design up into a central composite design by adding axial points. According to optimization results, the removal efficiency is maximized when concentration:110 mg l-1, dosage: 22 g l-1 and reaction time: 123 min. The predicted yield at these settings is 99.4623%.