An environmental database has been created, recording water bodies at a national level and assembling
relevant data collected by various public services and institutions in charge of water resources
management and research in Greece. Data consists of physico-chemical parameters, geomorphological
descriptions, inventories of fauna and flora species, environmental pressures, vulnerability evaluation
and other information useful for the assessment of current and future ecological status. Data
gathering has proven to be a challenging task, due to the large number and the generally small size of
the surface freshwater bodies as well as the numerous competent services and institutions and the
multiple and sometimes conflicting responsibilities that therefore result. The latter is also partly the
cause of lack of continuity of data, gaps or sometimes questionable reliability. Performing a global
data overview, we note that (a) ecological status can be characterized as good for the majority of the
sites, especially for small mountain streams, and (b) the general trend in most cases is degradation of
current conditions, related either to anthropogenic pressures or to human activity combined with
natural factors. This database, in a more completed and enriched form, could assist in the implementation
of 2000/60/EC Directive in Greece and the establishment of reference conditions of surface
The ENVIRON model estimates environmental impacts (positive, negative) from the introduction and
use of Advanced Communications (AC); Information Society Technologies (IST) in industrial, commercial
and business sectors in Greece. The model estimates effects on output, employment, income,
environment and energy requirements. It is based on the: (i) Leontief Input-Output theory-analysis,
(ii) Introduction of AC/IST and in particular of the Telematics as a new sector into the economic system
of a country, and (iii) Incorporation of pollution emission factors into the system.
The types of AC represented are grouped into six categories: access to information systems, electronic
transactions, robotics and tele-action, tele-working, mobile communications and video facilities.
Industry sectors considered are transport, business and services, public and domestic.
The application of ENVIRON indicates that the introduction of AC into the production process will
result into a 15.8% decrease of energy consumption, a reduction of 14.32-10.14% in SO2, and it will
have strong positive effects on the economic system of Greece especially on profits related to environmental
protection. The model demonstrates the use of the Leontief Input-Output analysis in environmental
impacts analysis matters and policy.
In order to explore the complex interrelations among the factors and processes that determine a rivers’
hydrochemical and biological quality, statistical techniques were applied to a variety of hydrochemical,
petrologic, biological, habitat, hydrological and morphologic data from 16 sites of the upper-part of the
Aliakmon river. Catchment morphology and geology control both, aquatic and biological quality, the latter
is mainly governed by substrate composition. The principal processes that control aquatic quality are:
a) baseflow contribution in river flow b) in-stream biological activity and pollution c) weathering of mafic
silicates. Using a Nutrient Pollution Metric (which has been developed), a hydrochemical quality classification
has been performed. Furthermore, a methodology, based on benthic macroinvertebrates and
aquatic quality, for the assessment of the ecological quality of running waters is presented.
The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of the co-regionalization of the distanceto-
river topographic variable with the soil properties topsoil clay and sand can improve their mapping.
The interpolation techniques: ordinary kriging, kriging combined with regression (two models) and
heterotopic co-kriging were applied to data from 153 observation points. The two models of kriging
combined with regression involve: (a) linear regression of the two soil variables with the distance-toriver
variable on the 153 observation points followed by kriging and (b) summation of the kriged regression
values and kriged regression residuals. For co-kriging 350 additional observations for the distanceto-
river-variable were employed. The distance-to-river data were easily obtained from the map of the
area which was stored in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The performances of the methods
were evaluated and compared using the cross-validation method. The mean error of prediction indicates
reasonably small bias of prediction for the two soil variables by almost all the methods. The mean
square error showed that heterotopic co-kriging produced better estimates of the soil variables than
kriging but there was a clear advantage in using the first model of kriging combined with linear regression
technique. The second model of kriging combined with regression does not show any particular
advantage over the other methods.
A 3D hydrodynamic/pollutant transport model was used to simulate the currents and pollutant transport
in coastal areas. The bathymetric and shoreline data was provided to the model via a GIS module
that operates in the ArcView GIS environment. The module is efficient and capable of generating
bathymetric rectangular grids and shorelines of different resolution for open and closed boundary scenarios
that can automatically be read by the coastal model. This ability could improve the basic patterns
and relationships of the model such as grid dependency. The functionality of the 3D model with the
GIS module is illustrated in a number of coastal areas in Greece.
The ability of activated carbon and different low-cost by-products and waste material as sorbents to remove
various reactive dyes from aqueous solutions and wastewaters was investigated. All aqueous dye solutions
contained 2,000 mg l-1 NaCl, to mimic real dye wastewater. Batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were
conducted to determine the sorption-desorption behavior of the examined dyes from aqueous solutions
and wastewaters by different sorbents, including activated carbon, fly ash, bentonite and bleaching earth.
The results from the aqueous solutions indicate that the form of the isotherm equation is not necessarily
unique for best description of both sorption and desorption data. The values of the isotherm
parameters are not the same, indicating a significant hysteresis effect.
Of the 9 sorption systems tested, 5 are best described by the Freundlich, 3 by the Langmuir and 1 by
the linear sorption model. Of the 7 desorption systems tested, 5 are best described by the Freundlich
and 2 by the linear model. In all cases, the sorption capacity for dye removal was higher for activated
carbon, followed by fly-ash and then by bentonite.
This study was conducted to evaluate the surface and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application
effects on sugar beet crop performance, under two levels (100% and 80%) of water application depth.
The experimental design was a split plot with four replications. Laterals were set every second crop row
(1 m apart), with emitters spaced 1 m apart. In the case of SDI, laterals were buried 0.45 m under the
ground. Soil moisture measurements were taken up to 75 cm depth, using the TDR method. The soil
water content and the yield characteristics of each treatment were recorded. Irrigation method showed
to affect crop performance significantly while water application level was less critical. The experimental
results indicated that the subsurface drip irrigation leaded to a greater yield and higher sugar content
making significant water saving compared to surface drip irrigation.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique for holistic environmental assessments of products and
processes. The unique feature of this methodology is its focus on the entire life cycle of a product, from
raw material extraction to final disposition. In order to assess the role of LCA in environmental management,
a comprehensive overview of its theoretical background (including recent aspects of its principles
and framework) is presented in this paper. From this overview it is obvious that, in spite of its drawbacks,
LCA is recognized as a valuable methodology in environmental management, capable of analysing and
assessing in a scientifical way the environmental consequences of various products and activities.
Complementary to this analysis, a life cycle inventory (LCI) case study from the Greek market is also presented.
In this LCI application, all the methodological issues and guidelines are taken into consideration
in order to calculate the resource requirements and the environmental loadings of ten alternative packaging
products while some of them are presented by each life cycle stage. The results of this LCI case
study cover a long list of inflows and outflows. Notwithstanding that these results are difficult to interpret,
they are very detailed and not affected by uncertainties introduced by impact assessment.
It is well known that the toxicokinetics (i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of mercury
is highly dependent on the form of mercury to which a receptor has been exposed. The aim of this
paper is to summarize the available health effects information for mercury and mercury compounds in
the international scientific literature (1940-2003) and to point to the need for increased Hg control of
water and food, including mercury speciation, especially in Mediterranean countries.
In this work the covariability of sea surface and lower troposphere temperatures (SST-AT) is investigated for
winter (DJFM) and summer (JJAS), over the whole northern hemisphere, by utilizing monthly anomalies in
grid boxes for a 22-year period. Air temperature variations in the lower troposphere are examined in terms
of 1000-500 hPa thickness. At first, factor analysis (FA) is applied on both sets of data in order to reduce their
dimensionality and to group objectively grid points with a similar long term temperature variability. Also, FA
revealed numerous teleconnections in both fields, most important being those governed by PNA in the
Pacific Ocean and NAO in the Atlantic Ocean. Then, by using the FA results as a guide, correlation coefficients
between the mean temperature time series of the subareas defined by FA in the two fields are estimated.
The highest values, up to r=0.70, were found for subareas located one over/under the other. Finally,
by introducing time lags, an attempt of forecasting either SST form AT or AT from SST is made. Although
in some cases the coefficients appear increasing, test showed that the increase is not statistically significant.
In any case, it appears that, on monthly time scale, it is the AT that controls SST and not the vice versa.