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Optimizing operation of a large-scale pumped storage hydropower system coordinated with wind farm by means of genetic algorithms

Paper Topic: 
Protection and restoration of the environment

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Corresponing Author: 
Bakanos P.I.
Bakanos P.I., Katsifarakis K.L.
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Paper Status: 
Date Paper Accepted: 
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Due to the intermittent and fluctuating nature of wind and other renewable energy sources, their integration into electricity systems requires large-scale and flexible storage systems to ensure uninterrupted power supply and to reduce the percentage of produced energy that is discarded or curtailed. Storage of large quantities of electricity in the form of dynamic energy of water masses by means of coupled reservoirs has been globally recognized as a mature, competitive and reliable technology; it is particularly useful in countries with mountainous terrain, such as Greece. Its application may increase the total energy output (and profit) of coupled wind-hydroelectric systems, without affecting the availability of water resources. Optimization of such renewable energy systems is a very complex, multi-dimensional, non-linear, multi modal, nonconvex and dynamic problem, as the reservoirs, besides hydroelectric power generation, serve many other objectives such as water supply, irrigation and flood mitigation. Moreover, their function should observe constraints such as environmental flow. In this paper we developed a combined simulation and optimization model to maximize the total benefits by integrating wind energy production into a pumped-storage multi-reservoir system, operating either in closed-loop or in open-loop mode. In this process, we have used genetic algorithms as the optimization tool. Our results show that when the operation of the reservoir system is coordinated with the wind farm, the hydroelectricity generation decreases drastically, but the total economical revenue of the system increases by 7.02% when operating in closed-loop and by 7.16% when operating in open-loop mode. We conclude that the hydro-wind coordination can achieve high wind energy penetration to the electricity grid, resulting in increase of the total benefits of the system. Moreover, the open-loop pumped-storage multi-reservoir system seems to have better performance, ability and flexibility to absorb the wind energy decreasing to a lesser extent the hydroelectricity generation, than the closed-loop.

Pumped-storage hydropower plant, multi-reservoir systems, wind farm, optimization, genetic algorithms